Water Management




Water management comprises of :

I. Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM)


When the integration is done at the River Basin level it is called Integrated River Basin Management.

Every stakeholder wants their share of water resource. IWRM aims to satisfy them sustainably.


Five principles of IWRM :


(i) Water - A Finite and Vulnerable Resource


River Yamuna in Delhi


(ii) Participatory Approach



(iii) Role of Woman



(iv) Social and Economic Value of Water



(v) Integration of 3Es


The 3 Es refer to Economic Efficiency, Equity and Environment Sustainability


II. Water Governance



(a) Definition




(b) Characteristics



(c) Ingredients


Legal instruments, Institutional Capacity and implementation mechanism




III. Water Supply and Waste disposal



(a) Agricultural Use


(i) Supply Infrastructure


River Water


The River is blocked by Dam to store and elevate the water level and create a reservoir.


The water is carried from Dam to field through Canal Network.


Ground Water


Open Well.


Tube Well.


(ii) Treatment Infrastructure

Normally water treatment for river water is not required for Irrigation.


(iii) Waste Disposal

The methods of waste disposal are same irrespective of the source of water. The irrigation water that is not consumed by plants returns to either groundwater or rivers. They have three major pollution loads.


(1) Sediment (2) Nutrients (3) Pesticide



Sediment


Caused due to erosion of furrows. Few mitigation measures are :


Nutrient


Mainly Nitrogen and Phosphorus from fertilizers. Few mitigation measures (as per Environmental Protection Agency, USA) :


Pesticides


Unused Pesticides flows with the run off.



Few mitigating measures(FAO) :


(b) Drinking Use


(i) Supply Infrastructure


Lakes/Ponds


Schematic Diagram of water supply and waste water treatment.


A water intake withdraws water from lake and delivers to water treatment plant.


Dharoi (Gujarat) Intake Structure.



Rivers


The infrastructure is similar to that shown in lakes after the water is conveyed/pumped from canals to lakes/ponds.



Ground Water


The groundwater extraction is done through open wells and tube wells in rural area and through boring wells in urban area.



(ii) Treatment Infrastructure


Lakes/Ponds


The infrastructure required depends upon the quality of raw water. The quality of treated water must be as per the Government prescribed limits. In India the standards are prescribed in the Environmental Protection Act.



Surface Water Treatment Plant Flow Diagram



An Overhead Water Tank



Rivers


The treatment infrastructure remains the same.



Ground Water


The treatment required for groundwater is generally limited to chemical treatment depending upon raw water quality.


Ocean/Sea


The Ocean water is desalinated to make it worth drinking.


Desalination Plant Flow Diagram



Minjur Desalination Plant, Chennai


The desalination of ocean water is energy intensive and hence costly. However, the technology is improving to make it cheaper and environment friendly.


(iii) Waste Disposal


A waste water treatment plant treats the water before disposal so that it is not environmentally damaging.



Waste Water Treatment Plant Flow Diagram



(c) Industrial Use


Four main industrial sectors require water for production :


(i) Supply Infrastructure


(ii) Treatment Infrastructure


(iii) Waste Disposal


The waste water discharge from industries i.e. effluents have to comply with the Government standards. In India the standards are prescribed in the Environmental Protection Act.


The infrastructure would depend upon the type of industry. Some examples are given :



Coal Mine Water Treatment



Paper and Pulbp Industry



Meat and Poultry Industry



Automobile industry



Textile Industry


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Water and ecology